NEMA17 stepper motors work great with Arduino CNC machines like 3D printers or the Makelangelo. Many Arduino shields exist to control stepper motors, and software to drive them is very straightforward.
This model has a D-cut single shaft. The flat side makes it easy to attach something with a set screw.
This model four control wires: red, green, blue, and yellow. It runs on 12 volts and uses a peak current of 0.3 amps.
This stepper motor has 400 full steps per revolution (0.9 degrees per step). Many Arduino shields have microstepping that subdivides the steps up to 32 times. That would make it 6400 microsteps (0.05625 degrees per step). That is a lot of precision!